Maori Society Maori social organisation The iwi tribe was the largest political unit within Classic Maori society, although an affinity with other tribes which shared descent from the same canoe frequently gave rise to military allegiances. However, the main unit was not the iwi but the hapu sub-tribe , a highly localised group of perhaps people of common descent made up of several inter-related whanau extended family groups bound together by a common ancestor who might have lived perhaps 10 generations earlier. The hapu was a fully autonomous and independent grouping, a self-sufficient economic unit which cultivated its own land and caught fish and snared birds from within its own boundaries. A village settlement might have comprised a single or perhaps several hapu. An ariki chief was the leader of a hapu and attained his rank from the common belief that vested in him was the mana prestige of his predecessors. If he were not an effective political leader he might retain his religious role while vesting political leadership in a more suitable relative. Whenever an important decision affecting the hapu was to be made, a public meeting would be held on the marae square in front of the whare runanga meeting house. The various kaumatua family leaders might all speak, but the ariki spoke first and last, and his decision, which would reflect the opinions expressed, was final. The word hapu literally means ‘pregnancy’, emphasizing the concept of kinship, and iwi, ‘bones’, the preoccupation with relationships and lines of descent.
Neolithic signs in China
Special thanks is given to Shirley Wiesmann who has compiled this data and we hope you will find it helpful. Silver Definitions Pure Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster. It is very ductile and malleable below gold and palladium one of the platinum metals.
It’s been years and the Oak Island Mystery still piques the interest of many explorers. The obsession with finding the island’s hidden treasure has at times ended in tragedy, causing the loss of lives, fortunes, families, and even sanity.
Video Transcript March Ed note: Some transcripts contain words or phrases that are inaudible or difficult to hear and are, therefore, designated in square brackets. It’s the 20th of February, , and it’s my great privilege to be meeting again with Klaus Dona. Klaus is going to be doing an audio commentary on one of his extremely special, unusual, and fascinating slide shows about the artifacts and the various phenomena that he has been researching, discovering, investigating personally all over the world relating to what I think you could legitimately call The Hidden History of the Human Race.
Would you say that that’s a good summary, Klaus? That’s a very good summary, yes. Klaus is going to take you through his own journey… you can accompany him on his own journey through his own discoveries. And take it away, Klaus. What are we looking at here? I can see an array of pyramids. The significance is that you can find pyramids all over the world on each continent.
The question is when and who did build those pyramids? Why many of those pyramids all over the world are looking very, very similar? Another question is did there really exist a global civilization?
Have Two Brothers Cracked the 220-Year-Old Oak Island Mystery?
See Article History Pre-Columbian civilizations, the aboriginal American Indian cultures that evolved in Mesoamerica part of Mexico and Central America and the Andean region western South America prior to Spanish exploration and conquest in the 16th century. The pre-Columbian civilizations were extraordinary developments in human society and culture , ranking with the early civilizations of Egypt , Mesopotamia , and China.
Like the ancient civilizations of the Old World, those in the New World were characterized by kingdoms and empires, great monuments and cities, and refinements in the arts, metallurgy, and writing; the ancient civilizations of the Americas also display in their histories similar cyclical patterns of growth and decline, unity and disunity.
In the New World the roots of civilization lay in a native agricultural way of life. These agricultural beginnings go back several millennia, to perhaps about bce and the first experimentations by the early Americans with plant cultivation. The domestication of successful food plants proved to be a long, slow process, and it was not until much later that a condition of permanent village farming life was achieved in the tropical latitudes of the two continents.
The Chinese word “YU” for Jade is a collective name for several kinds of stone, as Jadeit, Nephrit, Serpentin and Aventurin, for which the last two kinds nowadays not described any more for Jade.
The first humans in the Americas encountered animals now extinct such as the giant sloth, the mammoth and saber-toothed tigers. Earlier reports of ‘footprints’ being found in Mexico that were 40, years old appear to be untrue and may not even be human footprints. The oldest accepted human remains found in Mexico, a skull , is dated at roughly 12,00 years old, discovered at the Yucatan Peninsula by cave divers in at Hoyo Negro.
When the Earth turned warmer and the Bering Straight land bridge went underwater around 8, B. The skeleton of a teenage girl who lived during the last ice age has been determined to be the oldest most complete human skeleton ever discovered in the New World. Researchers expect that the 12, to 13, year-old remains, found in an underwater cave in , will increase our understanding of the Americas’ first people, and establish a definitive link between earliest Americans and modern Native Americans.
Pre-agricultural era, the people were nomadic hunters and food gatherers. There were agricultural beginnings, small permanent villages. From – B.
Each player begins the game with two bishops. One starts between the king’s knight and the king, the other between the queen’s knight and the queen. In algebraic notation the starting squares are c1 and f1 for White’s bishops, and c8 and f8 for Black’s bishops. The object of the game is to threaten the opponent’s king in such a way that escape is not possible checkmate. If a player’s king is threatened with capture, it is said to be in check, and the player must remove the threat of capture on the next move.
If this cannot be done, the king is said to be in checkmate, resulting in a loss for that player.
At a range of Neolithic sites in China, small numbers of symbols of either pictorial or simple geometric nature have been unearthed which were incised into or drawn or painted on artifacts, mostly on pottery but in some instances on turtle shells, animal bones or artifacts made from bone or jade. These sites include those pertaining to the cultures of Yangshao, Liangzhu, Majiayao and Longshan.
I have finally created a page for finished items coming straight from collections mine and others. My pages are such a confusion of different kinds of items that I am going to try to organize better. This is a beginning Early silver beads and bird pendants from Peru. This necklace is a bit of a mix between two areas in South America. The hollow silver men are very delicate so if you would like to clean them you must be very gentle. There is a great collection of zoomorphic greenstone amulet beads from Mexico on this 16 inch necklace.
The spacers are silver flying saucer beads from Ethiopia, the only beads that I could find that suited the creatures. There are ten preColumbian amulet beads, and three plain ones. When wearing this you are travelling with magic coming from the past and being brought into the modern world. It hasn’t been polished for a while and I think would like a little gentle buffing.
This 16 inch long necklace is made out of silver beads from Afghanistan that were collected over time, all interesting and sitting closely together, but having a spiderweb look to them as well.
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One theory even says that seven deaths need to take place before the island will give up its treasure. Join in on this epic whirlwind of adventure and mystery to find out what happens. There, a treasure was said to be hidden deep underground. For the rest of his life, he dreamt of one thing: A Treasure Hunt The year before, year-old Rick Lagina had already gone on his first-ever treasure hunt.
Maori social organisation. The iwi (tribe) was the largest political unit within Classic Maori society, although an affinity with other tribes which shared descent from the same canoe frequently gave rise to military allegiances. However, the main unit was not the iwi but the hapu (sub-tribe), a highly localised group of perhaps people of common descent made up of several inter-related.
Pin2 65 Shares If history fascinates you, land in Patna, the capital of Bihar on your vacation. Patna has ancient elements written all over it. It is the largest town in Bihar and its history dates back to years. During ancient times, the city was famously known as Pataliputra and it served capital of Magadha kingdom. Ruled by various dynasties, the land reflects the influences of varied culture and lifestyle. You may want to take a long vacation to enjoy the essence of Patna, which was one amongst the earliest lands inhabited.
Located 5 kms from Patna, Kumrahar gives you an insight into the rich history of Patna. The site now contains archaeological remains of Mauryan palace. Excavations conducted at Kumrahar between and brought to light Mauryan pillared hall. You could view ancient ornaments, copper coins, terracotta beads, stone beads, toy carts, utensils and many more.
Walking on Chengxian Street, Ascending the 69 steep steps to the Drum Tower, Walk through Yandaixiejie, Hutong walking tour, and Visiting a year old courtyard Pick up place and time: Papercutting Papercutting is one of the most popular handicrafts in Beijing. It in an art of paper, scissors and hands. They depicted ancient Chinese generals and beautiful women, Peking opera characters and facial masks, Chinese zodiac animals, and so on.
Is It Jade? The name “jade” refers to two different stones, nephrite and jadeite, which have similar properties. Nephrite, the jade carved in China for thousands of years, is a calcium magnesium silicate with hardness of 6 to on the Mohs scale (slightly softer than quartz).
Banpo pottery symbols Jiangzhai pottery symbols Another group of early symbols, which many have compared to Chinese characters, are the Banpo symbols from sites like Banpo , just east of Xi’an in Shaanxi dating from the 5th millennium BCE , [e] and nearby, at Jiangzhai, in Lintong District , from the early 4th millennium BCE. As the Banpo symbols were discovered fairly early —57  and are relatively numerous with 22 different symbols on sherds ,  these have been the focus of the most attention.
Some scholars have concluded that they are meaningful symbols like clan emblems or signatures which have some of the quality of writing, perhaps being primitive characters,  while others have concluded based on comparisons to oracle bone script that some of them are numerals. This is because all the Banpo-type symbols occur singly,   on pottery and pottery fragments, unlike written words, which tend to occur in strings representing language.
Thus, there is no context from which to conclude that the symbols are actually being used to represent language. Thus, leading scholar Qiu Xigui argues that:
Chinese Art Symbols
None Please refer to our Gemstone Glossary for details of gemmology-related terms. Related or Similar Gemstones Back to Top Green Jadeite Chloromelanite, also known as jade albite or ” maw-sit-sit “, the name given to it after the village where it was discovered in Burma, is closely related to jade, as is jade omphacite. Chloromelanite is made of a mineral called kosmochlor and it also contains some jadeite. Other minerals that are associated with jade are serpentine, nepheline, calcite, quartz, aragonite, glaucophane and vesuvianite.
Photo by Andrew Moore, CC BY-SA Golghar is a fine specimen of the architectural splendor of the land. Captain John Garstin built Golghar in the year to use as a granary to store grain when famine hit the city. The architecture bears resemblance of the Stupa style.
Scholars calculate that the largest heads weigh between 25 and 55 tonnes 28 and 61 short tons. The San Lorenzo and La Venta heads, on the other hand, were probably carved from the basalt of Cerro Cintepec, on the southeastern side,  perhaps at the nearby Llano del Jicaro workshop, and dragged or floated to their final destination dozens of miles away. Some monuments, and at least two heads, were recycled or recarved, but it is not known whether this was simply due to the scarcity of stone or whether these actions had ritual or other connotations.
Scholars believe that some mutilation had significance beyond mere destruction, but some scholars still do not rule out internal conflicts or, less likely, invasion as a factor. Based on this comparison, some writers have said that the Olmecs were Africans who had emigrated to the New World. Others note that in addition to the broad noses and thick lips, the eyes of the heads often show the epicanthic fold , and that all these characteristics can still be found in modern Mesoamerican Indians.
The Legend of the Imperial Jade Seal of China, An Heirloom Lost in Time
Like its predecessor the Pleistocene, the Holocene epoch is a geological period, and its name derives from the Greek words “holos”, whole or entire and “kainos”, new , meaning “entirely recent”. It is divided into 4 overlapping periods: Prehistoric Culture The longest phase of Stone Age culture – known as the Paleolithic period – is a hunter-gatherer culture which is usually divided into three parts: After this comes a transitional phase called the Mesolithic period sometimes known as epipaleolithic , ending with the spread of agriculture, followed by the Neolithic period the New Stone Age which witnessed the establishment of permanent settlements.
The Stone Age ends as stone tools become superceded by the new products of bronze and iron metallurgy, and is followed by the Bronze Age and Iron Age. All periods are approximate.
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Asian Art Week in New York ensures that tradition continues The ancient Chinese considered jade the most precious of all materials, prizing it more than gold, silver or bronze. Sophisticated jade and lapidary production techniques had already been mastered by the Neolithic era, and the love of jade, which some anthropologists consider a defining characteristic of Chinese culture, has endured until the present day.
The latter were used as weapons in Neolithic times because jade is a very hard stone, but likely served more as badges of office and emblems of rank. An exceptionally rare pale greyish-white jade figural pendant, Qin-Han dynasty, 3rd—2nd century B. The Sackler Collections Dr. His interests went beyond Asian Art to include European ceramics, sculpture, paintings and drawings from the medieval to the modern periods.
Sackler Museum at Harvard, and the Arthur M. Sackler Museum in Beijing. Sackler Collection, which was the first in a series of further sales. Shang dynasty, Anyang phase, circa B. Finials or insignias such as this exquisite example were used for personal adornment, possibly as part of a headdress. The perforations in the stone suggest that the bird would have been affixed to stand upright.
A very rare and unusually large dark green jade bi.